I use a mnemonic word AROWILL to remember the documents that I am required
to have on board.
R egistration Certificate
O wner's Manual (CARs
W eight & Balance
I nsurance (CARs
L icences (pilot's licence,
medical, and radio licence - CARs
L ogbook (the aircraft
journey logbook, not your personal logbook)
There used to be two R
s and two I
s in the mnemonic, but the aircraft radio
and the interception signals
are no longer required
to be carried on board. The journey log may be left at home if you will not
be shutting down at another airport (CARs
(1) As per CARs
, if your journey is more than 25 nm from your aerodrome, you must
carry means of starting a fire, purifying water, making a shelter, and signalling
distress. Obviously the situation is going to be different depending on whether
you're flying from Vancouver to Chilliwack or Iqaluit to Kangiqsualujjuaq.
There is an annex in the back of the AIP-AIR which describes conditions in
different parts of the country, and suggests appropriate equipment.
(2) A radio is only required in controlled airspace or where there is a mandatory
(3) Some passenger operations are restricted to multi-engined aircraft, but
there are many passenger charters that fly hundreds of miles in single engine
(1) Carrying passengers at night, you are required to have a serviceable landing
light. You are not required to use it -- there may be conditions of glare
or precipitation that cause you to choose not to -- but you must have one,
and it must work. CARs
(2) It doesn't matter how much your aircraft weighs or whether it is private
or commercial. In the United States, a landing light is only required if you
are carrying passengers for hire
, but Canadian laws are different.
(3) You are not permitted to land at an unlighted aerodrome at night unless
you are involved in a police operation, or saving human life. See CARs
. Aerodrome lighting must comply with CARs
(4) If you are by yourself, with no passengers, you don't need a landing light.
It still might be a good idea though.
(1) There is no particular oxygen rule associated with 9,500'.
(2) If you fly at cabin pressure altitudes above 10,000' for more than 30
minutes, each crew member must use supplemental oxygen. That means if you
fly an unpressurized aircraft at 10,500' for 30 minutes, no oxygen is required,
but if you fly at 10,500' for 31 minutes, 31 minutes of oxygen is required.
This answer choice is not correct because you CAN legally fly above 10,000'
without oxygen, as long as you don't go above 13,000', and as long as you
don't stay there for more than 30 minutes.
(3) Operating a US-registered aircraft in US airspace, you are required to
have oxygen above 12,500'.
(4) As described in CARs
, everyone on board is required to use supplemental oxygen when
the cabin altitude is above 13,000'.
If you fly any
airplane above 10,000' for more than 30 minutes, oxygen
must be available to the crew. If the airplane is unpressurized, the crew
must be using the oxygen.
(1) A life raft for each person
? That would be excessive! You don't
need to learn all the life raft rules for the private licence. CARs
(2) You can remember this one because a life preserver is somethig that each
person wears, so you need
one for each
(1) Commit 121.5 to memory. The UHF emergency frequency is 243.0 -- that's
easy to remember because it's exactly double 121.5. If you have a radio,
it must be able to communicate on 121.5. (CARs
(2) 121.9 is not any special frequency, but it's quite a common ground control
frequency, especially in the United States.
(3) 122.2 is the United States "Flight Watch" frequency, for PIREPs and weather.
(4) 126.7 is the Canadian enroute frequency.
(1) As long as the airspace doesn't require you to be radio-equipped, it
makes no difference if it's day or night.
(2) Landing lights are only required if there are passengers.
(3) The aerodrome must be lighted as set out in CARs
(4) Three night landings in ninety days describes the United States rules
for night currency with passengers. The Canadian night currency requirement
is 5 night takeoffs and landings in the past six months. If you are not
night current and you want to take passengers, you can go out and do five
solo circuits and then taxi back and pick up your passengers.
As defined in CARs
, an infant is any person under two years of age, regardless of
size. An infant can be held on an adult passenger's lap or secured in an
infant car seat. Older children need their own seats. When I have an infant
or child on board, I always include that in the remarks section of my flight
plan, because a child might wander away from an accident site or hide from
(1) A normal airplane seatbelt is pretty useless for holding a one year old.
When the CARs
605.25 and 605.26
talks about a child restraint system
, they are
referring to a carseat
(2) A strong impact would pull the child out of the adult's arms, but this
is the approved answer.
(3) Never fasten a seatbelt around an adult and a child togther, in any vehicle.
An impact, even just medium turbulence, could cause the child to be crushed
or strangled between the belt and the adult.
The required equipment for day VFR in Canada is listed in CARs
and according to CARs
it needs to meet aviation standards. American students use the
mnemonic TOMATO FLAMES
to remember it
all. Our rules are slightly different, so I have revised Tomato Flames to
match the CARs.
O il pressure gauge for
M agnetic compass
T imepiece (e.g. a wristwatch or a working dashboard
O il temperature gauge
(or other coolant gauge as applicable)
F uel gauge (can just be
a visual indication of the level)
L anding gear position
indicator (if retractable)
A irspeed indicator
M anifold pressure gauge
E mergency equipment (first
aid kit, fire extinguisher, ELT)
S urvival equipment appropriate
to the season, geographic area, and route of flight
Personally, I find it harder
to remember which letter represents what in Tomato Flames than just to memorize
the equipment needed: I need to know how high I am, how fast I'm going,
which way I'm going how much fuel I have left (that includes the watch),
how my engine is doing., and I need safety equipment. The American version of TOMATO FLAMES is here.
If there is anything wrong with anything on board your aircraft, you should
write a short description of the problem in the journey log, and sign it.
For now, just tell your flight instructor or your maintenance unit,
to have them confirm whether there really is a problem. Here is a joke
about what maintenance thinks of pilot complaints.